This idea is taken from Talk Less Teaching and I have found it to be particularly effective at encouraging independence.
Give each pupil 3 stars at the start of the day/lesson.
To encourage pupils to solve problems independently and avoid running to the teacher at the earliest opportunity, promote C3B4UCME (brain, book, buddy, boss).
When a pupils asks a question that they could have solved themselves, take away a star. Soon, you will notice far fewer questions that could have been solved independently.
You can associate a reward with the stars, e.g. the number of stars you have remaining at the end of the day/lesson could equal the number of house points they are awarded.